whig party definition
Many of these nationalist ideas were influenced by the economic program of Federalist leader Alexander Hamilton, but after the War of 1812 they were also supported by President James Madison, one of the founders of the Democratic-Republican Party. [133] The Conservative Party ultimately merged into the Democratic Party in the South, but ex-Whigs continued to promote modernization policies such as large-scale railroad construction and the founding of public schools. The Whig Party included former National Republicans, conservative factions of the Democratic-Republican Party, and some former members of the Anti-Masonic Party. "[139], Historian John Ashworth writes that the two parties were polarized on important questions of economic development, describing their competition as a "clash of democracy with capitalism. Southern Whig support for the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 (a law that created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and gave both territories the power to resolve the issue of slavery for themselves) convinced most northern Whigs to abandon the party, and by the end of that year the party had essentially disbanded. [189] By the 1840s, Southern Whigs like John M. Berrien of Georgia and John Botts of Virginia endorsed interventionist measures, but other Southern Whigs like William Cabell Rives of Virginia actively sought to shift the party away from economic nationalism. “Affect” vs. “Effect”: Use The Correct Word Every Time. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. [63], In the final weeks of Tyler's presidency, a small group of Southern Whigs joined with congressional Democrats to pass a joint resolution providing for the annexation of Texas, and Texas subsequently became a state in 1845. Jackson called that a corrupt bargain. [190], The Whig Party faced persistent sectional divisions regarding slavery. The party rose to prominence following the capitulation of the National Republican Party. [99] The Whig Party became badly split between pro-Compromise Whigs like Fillmore and Webster and anti-Compromise Whigs like William Seward, who demanded the repeal of the Fugitive Slave Act. [151] After the Second Bank of the United States lost its federal charter in 1836, the Whigs favored the restoration of a national bank that could provide a uniform currency, ensure a consistent supply of credit, and attract private investors. [148], Whig thought was typically rooted in evangelical Christianity, as expressed in the Second Great Awakening. [110] Like their Free Soil predecessors, Republican leaders generally did not call for the abolition of slavery, but instead sought to prevent the extension of slavery into the territories. A nationalist wing, led by Henry Clay, favored policies such as the Second Bank of the United States and the implementation of a protective tariff. In Ward Moore's Bring the Jubilee, a revived Whig Party is one of the two main parties of the rump United States, being the right-wing party whose platform reflects an acceptance of the United States' humbled status following its defeat in the War of Southron Independence. The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States. [126] With the nomination of two former Whigs, many regarded the Constitutional Union Party as a continuation of the Whig Party; one Southern newspaper called the new party the "ghost of the old Whig Party. The party, whose name was borrowed from the British Anti-Monarchist Party, was led by the political leader Henry Clay. [68] Polk received the declaration of war against Mexico and also pushed through the restoration of the Independent Treasury System and a bill that reduced tariffs; opposition to the passage of these Democratic policies helped to reunify and reinvigorate the Whigs. Last 300 years, a member of the American political party that opposed the, of, characteristic of, or relating to Whigs, a member of a political party in England (fl. https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Whig+Party, But while Charles was outwardly, for political reasons, a member of the Church of England (at heart he was a Catholic), the Duke of York was a professed and devoted Catholic, and the powerful, He discusses Lincoln's political thought, including his defense of natural rights, his view of the appropriate reach of government, and the political virtues of prudence and moderation, then Lincoln's presidency as it relates to domestic policy, particularly whether it aligned with the presidency-centered politics of contemporary America, including the idea that Lincoln led a "second American Revolution" by supporting the domestic agenda that helped bring forth the Industrial Revolution, the role of Lincoln in forming the Republican Party that replaced the, Except for the period of 23 years, (1847-1870), the Liberian government has been in the hands and control of the True, A Tory Party B Democratic Central Party C, Clay was the principal negotiator of three sectional compromises, Speaker of the House for ten years, i secretary of state for John Quincy Adams, and the leader of the, In 1854, the nascent Republican Party started the process of replacing the feckless, Liberians care less whether the inarticulate Weah, the perennial presidential candidate and consummate deal maker who went from being a presidential candidate in 2005, to playing second fiddle to the True, Along the way, he also served as secretary of state under John Quincy Adams, founded the, At times, Blumenthal gets lost in the weeds (literally, when recounting the battles of Thurlow Weed and William Seward with an array of rivals for control of the, For fifteen years, Lincoln had built a political career through the Illinois state legislature, through his marriage into the Todd clan, through his prominence in the Illinois, (10) The vast majority were defined by their opposition to exclusion, which was characterized by attempts by the, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Abraham Lincoln's Statesmanship and the Limits of Liberal Democracy, C O M M E N T A R Y: WE HAVE NOT LEARNED, ARE NOT LEARNING LIBERIA'S ELECTORAL PROCESS BY THE NEC HAS NOT BEEN FREE ANDFAIRBUT CONTROLLED AND MANIPULATED BY POLITICS, A&A Art Print: Respond and Connect: George Caleb Bingham (American; 1811-1879). Once the Mexican War (1846–1848) had been declared, controversy over allowing or forbidding slavery in the territories acquired during the war further splintered the party. Whig Party: 1 n a former political party in the United States; formed in 1834 in opposition to the Democratic Party; advocated a loose interpretation of the Constitution and high protective tariffs Type of: party , political party an organization to gain political power New York: Oxford Univ. [27] In doing so, the Whigs were able to shed the elitist image that had persistently hindered the National Republicans. Webster’s New World College Dictionary, 4th Edition. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Holt, Michael F. 1999. “Majority” vs. “Plurality”: What Their Differences Mean For This Election. Jackson strongly denied the right of South Carolina to nullify federal law, but the crisis was resolved after Congress passed the Tariff of 1833. Guelzo traces the start of this "dismissal" to the writings of Henry Adams, who dismissed the Whigs as bereft of ideas, and through to the writings of historian Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., who labeled the period during which the Whigs were active as the "age of Jackson". A second group, the Old Republicans, opposed these policies, instead favoring a strict interpretation of the Constitution and a weak federal government. [130], In the secession crisis that followed Lincoln's election, southern Democrats generally led secession efforts, while southern former Whigs generally opposed immediate secession. [58], Clay and Van Buren, the two front-runners for major-party presidential nominations in the 1844 election, both announced their opposition to annexation, and the Senate blocked the annexation treaty. A member of an 18th- and 19th-century British political party that was opposed to the Tories. [152] Through high tariffs, Clay and other Whigs hoped to generate revenue and encourage the establishment of domestic manufacturing, thereby freeing the United States from dependence on foreign imports. [141] Gregory Bowen notes that the two parties were polar opposite and highly ideological: "At the heart of Democratic ideology was a militant egalitarianism which contrasted sharply with the Whigs' support for equality of opportunity to produce a meritocratic society. By 1834 the Whigs were promoting their party as an alternative to the policies of "King Andrew" Jackson, whose administration they compared to the unpopular reigns of English Kings James II (1633–1701) and George III (1760–1820). [49] Tyler had never accepted much of the Whig economic program and he soon clashed with Clay and other congressional Whigs. Learn new vocab by taking this fun trivia quiz! [35], Shortly after Van Buren took office, an economic crisis known as the Panic of 1837 struck the nation. [30], Early successes in various states made many Whigs optimistic about victory in 1836, but an improving economy bolstered Van Buren's standing ahead of the election. In the 21st century? Despite the division, the Whig Party, with the popular general Zachary Taylor as its candidate, was successful in the presidential election of 1848. Within a single year, the deaths of Henry Clay and Daniel Webster left the party with a power vacuum. Last 100 years [159] Whigs were less in favor of expansionism than their Democratic counterparts, and Whigs tended to oppose the Mexican–American War and the acquisition of new territories like Cuba. [14] Jackson won another decisive victory in the 1832 presidential election, taking 55 percent of the national popular vote and 88 percent of the popular vote in the slave states south of Kentucky and Maryland. [155] The Whigs supported federally-financed internal improvements on the belief that only the federal government could construct the transportation system necessary for uniting the country commercially and culturally. In the South, most of the Whigs were soon absorbed by the Democratic Party. [87] When Taylor assumed office, the organization of state and territorial governments and the status of slavery in the Mexican Cession remained the major issue facing Congress. But hang on a moment. Antislavery Whigs from Massachusetts, known as Conscience Whigs, opposed the so-called Cotton Whigs in the pro-slavery southern states. [31] The Whigs also faced the difficulty of uniting former National Republicans, Anti-Masons, and states' rights Southerners around one candidate, and the party suffered an early blow when Calhoun announced that he would refuse to support any candidate opposed to the doctrine of nullification. [135], Historian Frank Towers writes that "Democrats stood for the 'sovereignty of the people' as expressed in popular demonstrations, constitutional conventions, and majority rule as a general principle of governing, whereas Whigs advocated the rule of law, written and unchanging constitutions, and protections for minority interests against majority tyranny. [12] The Anti-Masonic movement, strongest in the Northeast, gave rise to or expanded the use of many innovations which became accepted practice among other parties, including nominating conventions and party newspapers. Copyright © 2010 by All rights reserved. [5] In the 1824 presidential election, Speaker of the House Henry Clay, Secretary of the Treasury William H. Crawford, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, and General Andrew Jackson all sought the presidency as members of the Democratic-Republican Party.

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