indus valley civilization essay pdf
An Overview of the History of the Indus Valley Civilization Essay, The History of the Indus Valley Civilization: An Examination Essay, A Comparison Of The Development Of States In Africa And America Essay, The Epic of Gilgamesh and the Ramayana Essay, Machu Picchu unanswered questions and theories Essay, The pyramids of the ancient Egypt civilization Essay. Their seals depict animals in a way that seems to suggest veneration, perhaps presaging Hindu convictions regarding the sacredness of cattle. This is proved by the discovery of a number of spindles and spinning wheels in the various houses of Indus Valley. This city was built after careful planning, as is clear from streets which though vary in width yet intersect at right angles. In the absence of any written material or historical evidence scholars have made various speculations regarding the causes for the Decline or destruction of Indus Valley civilisation. Economic Life of the People of Indus Valley Civilisation: 7. The Indus Valley Civilization was at its height circa 2600 – 1900 BCE and was not discovered by historians until the 1920’s when excavations uncovered the city of Harappa. The Indus Valley Civilization and the coming of the Aryans is the start of ancient India. The main building material was brick, both fired and sun-baked, of a rigorously standardized size. This testimony clearly indicate that the people had quite an advanced type of religious faith. The Indus Valley Civilization had flourished from around 2500 B.C. com/Indus_Valley_Civilization>. “Indus Valley Civilization. The “critical mass” needed for economic integration would have collapsed. These articles include cake moulds, dippers, beakers, bowls, dishes, gobies, basins, pans, saucers, etc. If so, it is the only evidence we possess that might suggest what Indus civilization people called themselves. Fishing was used both as game as well as regular profession. This theory makes lots of sense, as both Mesopotamia and Egypt had tombs and monuments, and both were known to have had hierarchies. http://www.safarmer.com/frontline/ shows how the Indus Valley Civilization has become contentious in present-day Indian politics, giving a summary of present knowledge. The Indus civilization was predated by the first farming cultures in south Asia, which emerged in the hills Baluchistan, to the west of the Indus Valley. Glover bases his theory off of the fact that if there had been an all-out ruler, there would have been monuments and great tombs for that leader (like the pyramids of Ancient Egypt) – which there weren’t. Causes for the Destruction of Indus Valley Culture 10. In addition, it is known that Indus civilization people practiced rainfall harvesting[? Still, it is possible that longer texts were written in perishable media. Current thinking does not give much credence to the view that the Indo-Aryans were responsible for the collapse of the Indus civilization, or that ‘”white” invaders displaced or subordinated “dark” natives. The largest cities as many as 30,000 people. Indus Valley Civilization (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download link is provided at the end of this post. Although the “Citadels” are walled, it is far from clear that these structures were defensive. Although the people of Indus Valley could not produce works of art on a large scale, they displayed notable artistic achievement at-least in seal engravings, especially those of animals. It cannot be said for certain as to who were the invaders who destroyed the Indus Valley civilisation. In fact there was very little difference between the dress of the males and the females. In the nineteenth century, some scholars argued that “superior” Aryan invaders, with their horses and chariots, conquered the “primitive,” “dark,” and “weak” peoples they encountered in ancient South Asia. Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread. The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India (see map). A number of standing and semi-nude female figure, wearing a girdle or band round her loins, with an elaborate head dress and collar, etc. All work is written to order. ; The Indus Valley was home to the largest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China. These ornaments were made of clay and various metals like gold, silver, copper, bronze etc., Certain ornaments like necklaces, fillets, armlets, finger-rings and bangles were used by both men and women. The culture’s sudden appearance appears to have been the result of planned, deliberate effort. In the past, many scholars argued that the collapse was so sudden that it must have been caused by foreign conquest. Therefore, the period which is roughly assigned to the Indus civilisation ranges between 2500 B.C. bookrags. This suggest that spinning of cotton and wool was quite common. Having trouble finding the perfect essay? They proceeded to destroy much of the available archaeological evidence. August 18, 2017 *You can also browse our support articles here >. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. Nevertheless, the Indus civilization was by far the most geographically extensive of the three earliest civilizations. The four cultures referred to as river valley civilizations include the Indus river civilization, Yellow River civilization, Nile River civilization and Tigris-Euphrates civilization. No plagiarism, guaranteed! Why is Sarnath significant in relation to the Buddha? Majumdar and say that the ruins of the city of Mohenjo-Daro reveal that “on this site a large, populous and flou­rishing town, whose inhabitants freely enjoyed, to a degree unknown elsewhere in the ancient world, not only the sanitary conveniences but also the luxuries and comforts of a highly developed municipal life.”. Privacy Policy3. In addition the people of Indus Valley also knew the practice of dyeing. This has been proved by the representation of a boat on a seal. “She is naked but wears bracelets, right up to the shoulder. Content Guidelines 2. Most of the known inscriptions have been found on seals or ceramic pots, and are no more than 4 or 5 characters in length; the longest is 26 characters. For a long time it was believed that Indians are stay at home people and our civilization was only of recent origin. The Indus civilization remains mysterious in another way: Despite numerous attempts, scholars have not been able to decipher the Indus script. We are in the realm of conjecture. Want us to write one just for you? However, certain scholars have taken certain bones recovered on the upper-most layer as bones of the horse, while the others have denied. All the cities of the Indus Valley civilisation such as Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, Chanhuduro, Lohumjudaro etc., display the remarkable skill of the Indus valley civilisation in town planning and sanitation. No one can judge just by the scientific facts that are presented within, many fascinating developments, the most prominent being the first civilizations, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. Ernest Brastins[?] Some of them undoubtedly made use of the fertile alluvial soil[?] We can custom edit this essay into an original, 100% plagiarism free essay. The Indus Valley civilization extended over a large region of present-day Pakistan and western India. We do not know what language Indus civilization spoke. Causes for the Destruction of Indus Valley Culture: 10. The history of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), also known as Harappan Civilization. left by rivers after the flood season, but this simple method of agriculture is not thought to be productive enough to support cities. Pssst… What disappeared was not the people, but the civilization: the cities, the writing system, the trade networks, and — ultimately — the ideology that so obviously provided the intellectual foundation for this civilization’s integration. Social Life of the People of Indus Valley Civilisation: 6. Indus Valley Civilization (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download. We can form an idea about the dress used by the people from the various sculptures of the age. Ancient river valley civilizations are one of the earliest societies in the world. The animal sacrifices were quite common. These articles are made of stone, shell, ivory, metal etc. Nothing can be said for certainty about the language or the script used by the Indus Valley people, because the script has not so far teen un-deciphered. Instead of building canals, Indus civilization people may have built water diversion schemes, which — like terrace agriculture[?] Order Essay Define: bitumen; Define: citadel . It is also known as the Indus Civilization because two of its best-known cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, are situated along the banks of the Indus River. Their script has been characterized as pictographic, each sign standing for a particular word or object. Reference this. The love of the people for the bath is further confirmed from the discovery of a public bath at Mohenjo-Daro. ; It flourished around 2,500 BC, in the western part of South Asia, in contemporary Pakistan and Western India. Date 4. Topic 1: On several occasions in class, we discussed the processes of accretion and syncretism. They also used fish as food. Religion of the People 8. Villagers had, by this time, domesticated numerous crops, including peas, sesame seed, dates, and cotton, as well as a wide range of domestic animals, including the water buffalo, an animal that remains essential to intensive agricultural production throughout Asia today. A large number of weights have been discovered from Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. We will occasionally send you account related emails. As seen in Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, the best-known (and possibly the largest) cities, this urban plan included the world’s first urban sanitation systems. The Indus Valley Civilization was at its height circa 2600 – 1900 BCE and was not discovered by historians until the 1920’s when excavations uncovered the city of Harappa. Kenoyer also says that there was an elite class, but Glover says that there was not. But probably the most important industry of the Indus Valley people was pottery. Indus Valley Civilization (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download. In fact many of the features found in the Indus Valley civilisation have been adopted by the Hinduism. Study for free with our range of university lectures! Introduction to Indus Valley Civilisation 2. Long Essay Question Judging from the abundant figurines depicting female fertility that they left behind, Indus civilization people — like modern Hindus — may have held a special place in their worship for a mother goddess and the life-affirming principles she represents (see shakti and Kali). People were also fond of hunting. Vertical drain pipes suggest that bath rooms were constructed in upper storeys also. Careful study of the above features of town planning viz. Still, it is possible Vedic civilization, arising centuries after the Indus civilization’s downfall, evolved in a dialogue between Central Asian immigrants and indigenous, village peoples, who may have recalled — perhaps mythologically — the Indus civilization’s grandeur and its collapse. Both men and women were in the habit of using ornaments.

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