clash of civilizations essay pdf
He claims the expansion of the West has promoted both the modernization and the Westernization of non-Western societies. First it is a slow process; second this decline is highly irregular with pauses, reversals, and some renewals; and thirdly the West’s power to influence the World is based on numerous factors such as economic, military, institutional, demographic, political, technological, and social powers; all which are declining. Westerners constitute a steadily decreasing minority of the world’s population. Fifth and finally is the prevalence of conflict. However the world is too complex to be envisioned as simply divided economically between North and South or culturally between east and West; perhaps the West and the Rest. The simple split between the European and the African cultures is relevant in this sense. These two encounters between civilizations would lead, Puritans and Native Americans in regards to one of some of the most important contemporaneous IR debates, tThe clash of Civilizations. This is an excerpt from Understanding Post-9/11 Afghanistan: A Critical Insight into Huntington’s Civilizational Approach. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Huntington presumes a West at the peak of its power confronting non-Wests that increasingly have the desire, the will and the resources to shape the world in non-Western ways. Clash of Civilization At the macro-level, states from different civilizations compete for relative military and economic power, struggle over the control of international institutions and third parties, and competitively promote their particular political and religious values. A world of clashing civilizations, states Huntington, is however, inevitably a world of double standards: people apply one standard to their kin-countries and a different standard to others. Civilization has three attributes which are the objective elements – language, history religion, customs, and institution; the subjective elements – variable levels of self-identification; and civilization itself is dynamic – they rise and fall, divide and merge. The disintegration of the Soviet Union removed the only serious challenger to the West and as a result the world is and will be shaped by the goals, priorities, and interests of the principal Western nations, with perhaps an occasional assist from Japan. Get Your Custom Essay on, By clicking “Write my paper”, you agree to our, Toltec Civilization Research Paper Toltec Civilization, Handguns and other firearms have a long tradition in American civilization, https://graduateway.com/the-clash-of-civilizations-essay/, Get your custom The Clash of Rights categorizes the major contemporary civilizations as follows: Sinic, a distinct Chinese civilization; Japanese, a distinct civilization which was the offspring of Chinese civilization; Hindu, the core of Indian civilization; Islamic, many distinct cultures existing within including Arab, Turkic, Persian, and Malay; Orthodox, centered in Russia and separate from Western Christendom; Western, associated with Christianity, Renaissance, Reformation and Enlightenment; Latin America, a separate civilization closely affiliated with the West but divided as to where it belongs in the West; and possibly African; as the North and East coast are associated with Islam but the remainder have developed a sense of distinct identity. They believe the conflict of the future will occur along the cultural fault lines separating civilizations [1]. It is human to hate. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. He rejects the assumption that it reduces the probability of war between nations, and asserts that evidence actually proves the contrary. As people define their identity in ethnic and religious terms, they are seen as “us” versus “them” relation existing between themselves and people of different ethnicity or religion. A violent culture clash occurred with the Crusades, while a more peaceful meeting of the cultures occurred with traders from Europe (especially Venetians) heading eastward to Asia. Cultures have a commonality; ancestry, religion, language, history, values, customs, and institutions. As the diagram 1.2 illustrates, the Velvet Curtain of culture has replaced the Iron Curtain of ideology as the most significant dividing line in Europe. Significant declines occurred in the proportion of people speaking English, French, German, Russian, and Japanese, that a smaller decline occurred in the proportion of people speaking Mandarin, and that increases occurred in the proportion of people speaking Hindi, Malay-Indonesian, Arabic, Bengali, Spanish, Portuguese, and other languages. The first is of overwhelming, triumphant, almost total Western dominance. The third paradigm is 184 States, More or Less. In general, states belonging to one civilization that become involved in war with people from a different civilization naturally try to rally support from other member of their own civilization. The clash of civilizations thus occurs at two levels. This lack of a core state endangers the potential for these cultures to take a leadership role in global politics. Such conflicts, however, are likely to be less intense and less likely to expand than conflicts between civilizations. However this decline, he describes, is not so simple. Political boundaries increasingly are redrawn to coincide with cultural ones: ethnic, religious, and civilizational. In every respect, Huntington believes, the Islamic bloc from the bulge of Africa to central Asia has bloody borders. An image of universal and uniform anarchy provides few clues for understanding the world. Huntington also discusses the effects of modernization and Westernization. Huntington believes that the great divisions amongst humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be in the cultural form. The fault lines between civilizations will be the battle lines of the future”. Islam, Latin America and Africa all lack core states. Dialogue between civilizations are also needed, these civilizations, of which seven or eight exist, that alliances will be formed and wars will be fought. .

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